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英语泛舟

英语泛舟-第9期

作者:殷琦 刘艳… 文章来源:本站原创 点击数: 更新时间:2006-11-22

英语泛舟(九)

 

  Welcome to our English boating at the same time of every Wednesday afternoon.欢迎大家在这个冬日的周三下午准时走进英语泛舟,让我们一起在这里寻找一份轻松、一份快乐,收获一份知识、一份信心。

    清晨跑操的时候才忽然发现晨风比先前凉了许多,冬天就这样悄然而至,没有春的姹紫嫣红,没有夏的热情奔放,没有秋的金碧辉煌。但是,它那独具一格的深沉总给人们的心底留下那最后一丝的宁静 At such times, locked away inside wall and woolen, lulled by the sedatives of wood-smoke and candlelight, we recall the competing claims of nature. 在这样的时节里,我们紧闭房门,裹上毛衣,沐浴在木材燃烧和烛光带来的祥和之中,下面的一曲《Edelweiss》,送给每一个正在享受冬日的人们。

音乐《EdelweissF:\节目\英语泛舟\素材

冬天最容易让人变得懒洋洋的,可面对繁重的学习和工作我们可不能就这么懒洋洋下去,即使在冬天,我们也要做一团跳动的火焰。Do you know Why We Love to be Scared? 你知道我们为什么喜欢受到惊吓么?让我们来听听CRI English 是怎么解释的。

录音《Why We Love to be ScaredF:\节目\英语泛舟\素材\文章 scared

为什么人们喜欢受惊吓?

无数的人们被那些令人反胃的血渍、恐怖电影和鬼屋深深吸引着。科学家称人脑对恐怖事物的反应将是治疗恐怖症和焦虑症的关键。

当人们受到惊吓,他们的身体会自动启动“斗或逃”反应—他们的心率升高、呼吸加快、肌肉紧缩、注意力随时准备快速有效地应对威胁。

临床心理学家大卫·拉德说:“这是自我保护的自然反应。”

拉德解释说:“如果大脑知道并不存在真正的危险,就会把这种肾上腺素大量分泌当作享受。享受恐惧的关键是知道如何准确估计受惊吓的风险。”

拉德对《生命科学》杂志说:“小孩可能会过高估计受惊吓风险,感觉到真正的‘恐怖。’这时候你会看见小孩紧紧抓住父母哭起来,认为真的有可能受伤。成年人虽然也会尖叫,但随后意识到并没有真正的风险的时候就会笑出来。”

这个现象也能解释为什么人们喜欢跳伞、蹦极和极限运动。

拉德说:“这时人们相信如果训练有素、小心谨慎就能降低高风险运动的危险,于是他们很享受这个过程。大脑中负责这一反应的关键部位和杏仁核十分相似。杏仁核负责形成和储存与情绪有关的记忆。”

环境心理学家弗兰克·麦克安德鲁说享受恐怖的能力是进化的表现。

 “我们被此种需求驱使探索新的可能,寻找新的食物来源、更好的居住地和好的合作伙伴。人们在一定限度内享受非正常事物—一种节奏的变化。”

Ok, let’s have a break.

音乐《sitting down here

Welcome be back.好久以前听过一首歌《没有情人的情人节》,孟庭苇恬静、忧伤的嗓音倾尽了单身的悲戚和落寞。忽然发现,冬日里身边的单身贵族似乎有增无减,而且,单身不再是伤感的代名词,它代表着时尚、自由和神秘。20061111光棍节,单身的你是怎么凑个热闹的?注意喽,这可是中国民间的独创,起源于我们最为熟悉的大学校园。光棍节怎么过的?也许大家伙各有自己的独到之乐,下面就让我来告诉你一些关于光棍节的传说吧。

"Singles Day" falls on every November 11th, and as the name indicates, this relatively new holiday is one exclusively for people who are still living the single life. I was a bit surprised when I goggled 'Singles Day' on the Internet, to find that China is the only country in the world that has set aside a special day for singles to celebrate their lives. To find out more about this celebration, read on.

Origin of Singles Day

An old story goes that once there were four single men, leading very boring lives. None of them were married, or had lovers, or did anything exciting. They just sat around all day and played Mahjong.

One day they played Mahjong from 11 in the morning until 11 at night. During the game, no matter who won, the winning card was always the 'four columns' card (the card shows four independent, parallel columns in two lines). Even more of a coincidence, it was Nov 11, or 11/11. In order to commemorate the day, they nicknamed it "Singles Day".

University culture

"Singles Day" was first celebrated at various universities in Nanjing, capital city of Jiangsu Province during the 1990s. It got the name "Singles Day" because the date is comprised of four "ones". These college students have since graduated, and carried their university tradition into society. Singles Day is now a special day for all fashionable youths.

The main way to celebrate "Singles Day" is to have dinner with your single friends, but it's important that each person pay their own way to show their independence. People also hold 'blind date’ parties in an attempt to bid goodbye to their single lives.

Creative celebration

For breakfast on "Singles Day", singles often eat four youtiao (deep-fried dough sticks) representing the four "ones" in "11.11" and one baozi (steamed stuffed buns) representing the middle dot.

Many singles also choose to say goodbye to their single lives on this day. Many attend 'blind date' parties and many people choose to marry on this day. In addition to meaning 'single' the four 'ones' of the date can also mean 'only one' as in 'the only one for me.' Some people will use this date and this meaning to tell their special someone that they are the only 'one' in their heart.

最后给大家补充两个单词:Singles Day就是光棍节的意思,blind date指的是不相识的男女第一次约会。Well,你的那个她(它)又在哪里呢?一首《wanna be where you are》送给每一个正在寻找的人。

音乐《wanna be where you areF:\节目\英语泛舟\素材

说完了光棍节让我们再来看看Dear John Letter,你能猜出这是什么意思么?

中国有个说法叫作鸿雁传情,指的是情侣通过写信互相表达爱意。但是如果收到的是“Dear John Letter”的话,那就大事不妙了。因为在西方,Dear John Letter指的是情人写给对方的绝交信。
    “Dear John Letter”
成为一个大众词汇是在第二次世界大战的时候。男人们应征入伍,留下了他们的妻子或女朋友。由于常年在外征战,他们的情人纷纷移情别恋,另寻他人。这样的绝交信往往以“Dear John”来称呼绝交对象。信的开头一般也是固定的:我已经找到了我的另一半,但他不是你。所以我想我们还是分开的好。

   
可以想象,在战场上收到远方爱人的绝交信对奋勇作战的战士来说是十分痛苦的,更为痛苦的是他们都被统一地称呼为“Dear John”。因为这样的信带给战士们的往往是刻骨铭心的伤感于是“Dear John Letter”在战后广为流传。

   
有趣的是,“Dear John Letter”还引出了另外一个词组“That is all she wrote”。二战时在军队中有一个流传很广的笑话:一名士兵将女友的来信念给战友们听。“Dear John”,他刚一开口就停住了。战友们催他继续往下念,他说:“That is all she wrote.”(她就写了这么多,我被甩了!)

Well , do you understand it? And will you have million tears for somebody when you receive the dear john letter? Let’s have a rest, enjoy next music--<million tears>.

<million tears>F:\节目\英语泛舟\素材

这次的四级加油站要告诉大家的是如何高效浏览文章在文章的浏览(即略读,skimming)过程中,对文中信息重要性的判断可以帮助读者快速有效地了解段落的大意。在浏览过程中,读者可以通过寻找“信号词”来区分重要信息和非重要信息。以下列出的是阅读过程中常见的几类“信号词”。

1.以下词组提示下文所涉及的重要信息:

The main / important point / conclusion / reason….

The point to note here…

2.以下词组提示了下文的结构框架:

There are three major reasons…

3.but however表示对比,常常用来提示重要信息,例如:

The rising birth rate is not due to increased fertility, but to a sharp decline in the death rate.

4.在文中提问可以突出问题后的答案,提示读者答案中有重要信息,例如:

Why is a piped water supply so important? Disease due to contaminated water is a common cause of death in childhood.

5.有时,为了保证读者完全理解自己的观点,作者会在文中反复提出自己的观点,例如:

Death control can be achieved autonomously. In other words, the death rate can be cut without anything else changing.

6.文章的结论通常是非常重要的,因此,读者要在文中寻找提示结论的“信号词”,例如: Therefore the result

In conclusion we can conclude

One of the primary conclusions

7.举例是为了帮助读者理解某一个观点,因此,文中的例子不是浏览文章时的重要信息。在阅读过程中,以下词组提示读者下文是举例部分信息。

For example/instance like

Such as these include

To illustrate among these are

有时,作者也会用破折号或括号来提示举例信息,例如:

The developing countries are dependent on cash crops – sugar, coffee, cacao, cotton.

Precipitating/violent/unexpected factors are those which reduce the food supply (droughts, floods, wars, epidemics)…

在段落浏览时,读者在看到信号词后,应不断对下文信息作出相应的判断,例如:

The main reason for (提示:下文信息重要) the reduction in the death rate in the developing world has been improved public health measures. For example, (提示:下文信息不重要,仅仅是为了用来证明前面的观点) in Sri Lanka the death rate was halved over ten years by spraying the mosquitoes which carry malaria. Why (提示:问题的答案中有读者应该关注的重点) is it so easy to cut the death rate in this way and yet so hard to reduce the birth rate? One answer (提示:这只是众多答案中的一种,并不是最重要的。) is that public health measures can be very cheap. Anti-malarial spraying is inexpensive. But this is not the important point (提示:but后面的是非常重要的信息). For birth control programmes to be successful, a change in attitude is required, whereas death control can be achieved autonomously. In other words, (提示:这里是作者想要强调的重要信息) the death rate can be cut without anything else changing.

Ok,这次就到这里吧,让我们相约在下个周三,不变的约定,不变的精彩,不变的你我,bye-bye.

                                                       11.12.2006

                                                       编辑:殷琦

责任编辑:广播站